電子煙能不能替煙?替煙效果如何?

500
文章
0
評論
2020年8月30日 評論

電子香煙是傳統香煙的安全替代品嗎?它能幫助成千上萬的吸煙者戒煙嗎?如果可以,那為什么反煙主義者反對電子香煙呢?通過這個短視頻了解電子香煙的真相吧!

中英對照文本

翻譯:Sunny | 校對:FungChuh
Imagine if there were an alternative to smoking cigarettes.

設想如果傳統香煙有替代品。

Imagine this alternative could help millions of people quit smoking and came with only a fraction of the harmful chemicals that cigarettes do.

想象這個替代品能夠幫助上百萬人戒煙,而其產生有害化學物質只是傳統香煙的一小部分。

Well, you don’t have to imagine it. It exists.

其實,你無需想象。它確實存在。

E-cigarettes are the most innovative and promising smoking-cessation product yet invented. So, public health officials and anti-tobacco activists are all in favor of this life-saving innovation, right?

電子香煙是至今發明的最新穎最有效的戒煙產品。所以,公眾健康官員和反煙主義者都應該大力支持這個拯救生命的創新,對吧?

Actually, they’re almost all totally against it.
實際上,他們幾乎都徹底反對它。

Why?

為什么呢?

電子煙能不能替煙?替煙效果如何?

Because, incredibly, they make no substantial distinction between e-cigarettes and real cigarettes -- even though they are completely different products.
難以置信的是,他們認為電子香煙和傳統香煙并沒有本質區別,盡管兩者是完全不同的產品。

To begin with, e-cigarettes aren’t cigarettes. They contain no tobacco. Instead, a liquid containing nicotine derived from tobacco leaves is vaporized, and users of e-cigarettes inhale that vapor. Vapor, mind-you – not smoke.

首先,電子香煙不是煙。它不含煙草。相反,它蒸發一種提取自煙草葉的含有尼古丁的液體,電子香煙使用者吸入這種蒸汽。注意,是蒸汽不是煙霧。

This is significant because the real harm from tobacco comes from the combustion process, which releases hundreds of toxic compounds known as tar. Since e-cigarettes have no tobacco and no combustion, they release no tar. This makes them, according to Britain’s Department of Health, at least 95% less harmful than tobacco cigarettes.

這是至為重要的一點,因為傳統香煙的真正危害來自于燃燒過程,這個過程釋放了無數的有毒化合物 —— 焦油。電子香煙不含煙草,也沒有燃燒過程,自然也不釋放焦油。根據英國健康部門報道,這使它們的危害至少比傳統香煙低 95%。

E-cigarettes do contain nicotine, an addictive drug. However, there is little evidence that nicotine alone is bad for you, making it similar to, say, caffeine--a drug used every day by millions of people.

電子香煙確實含有尼古丁這種成癮的藥物。然而,鮮有證據表明單獨攝入尼古丁對人體有害,舉個例子,就像咖啡因,一種數百萬人每天都服用的藥物。

Brad Rodu, an oral cancer specialist at the University of Louisville, put it this way: “I love coffee, and I’m sure I could get caffeine if I smoked my coffee beans…but I would be paying a much different price in overall health [if I did].”

布拉德·羅度,路易斯維爾大學的一位口腔癌專家,這樣說道:“我愛喝咖啡,并且我確信如果我吸咖啡豆,我也可以攝取咖啡因,但是(如果這樣做)我將會付很不一樣的健康代價?!?/p>

In other words, when it comes to addictive substances like caffeine or nicotine, it isn’t the addictive substance that’s harmful; it’s how it’s delivered. As South African psychiatrist Mike Russell said about cigarettes: “[People] smoke for [the] nicotine, but they die from the tar.”

換句話說,當談及咖啡因、尼古丁這樣的成癮物質,有害的不是成癮物質本身,而是它傳遞的途徑。正如南非的精神病專家邁克·羅素對香煙的評論:“(人們)為了尼古丁而吸煙,卻死于焦油?!?/p>

And again, there’s no tar in e-cigarettes.
再重復一遍,電子香煙不產生焦油。

Does this all mean e-cigarettes are completely safe? Of course not. Nothing is completely safe. E-cigarettes are a relatively new innovation so more research is needed, especially on long-term effects. There’s also a place for sensible regulation to ensure consumer safety.
這意味著電子香煙絕對安全?當然不是。沒什么是絕對安全的。電子香煙是比較新的發明,所以需要更多的研究,尤其是關于它的長期影響。也有必要進行合理的監管來確保消費者的安全。

But unlike normal everyday products, any potential risk posed by e-cigarettes is far outweighed by a real – not potential – good: saving lives by providing the nicotine that smokers enjoy without delivering the deadly toxins that can kill them.
不同于日常用品,電子香煙的任何潛在風險都遠不如其實在(并非潛在)好處:拯救生命,提供吸煙者喜愛的尼古丁又不傳遞可以殺死他們的致命毒物。

Many former smokers have successfully used e-cigarettes to help them kick their nicotine addiction altogether. A recent study in an Oxford Journal peer-reviewed publication, Nicotine and Tobacco Research, said that e-cigarettes could reduce smoking-related deaths by 21 percent. That’s thousands of lives every year.
很多曾經吸煙的人成功利用電子香煙徹底擺脫了自己對尼古丁的癮。最近牛津周刊同行評審刊中的一個研究——尼古丁和煙草研究表明,電子香煙可以將與吸煙相關的死亡率降低 21%。即是每年數千條生命!

John Britton, an epidemiologist and director of the University of Nottingham’s Center for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, is even more optimistic:
約翰·布里頓,諾丁漢大學煙草和酒精研究中心的一位流行病學家兼中心負責人,則更加樂觀:

“[E-cigarettes are] the first genuinely new way of helping people stop smoking that has come along in decades…[They] have the potential to help half or more of all smokers get off cigarettes.”
“(電子香煙是)幾十年來第一種真正可以幫助人們戒煙的新方法。(它們)有潛力幫助一半甚至全部的吸煙者擺脫香煙?!?/p>

So, again, you’d think public health officials and anti-tobacco groups would be doing everything they could to encourage smokers to switch to e-cigarettes.
所以你再一次認為公眾健康官員和反香煙團體會盡一切所能鼓勵吸煙者轉向電子香煙。

Instead, they push for laws and rules that equate the two products: cigarettes are bad, so e-cigarettes must also be bad. As of August 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration has ruled that all e-cigarettes must go through a long and expensive application process. This process could end up costing as much as $1 million per new product.
相反,他們推動法律和相關規章制度平等對待這兩種產品——傳統香煙有害,所以電子香煙也一定有害。

2016 年 8 月,美國食品和藥物管理局規定所有電子香煙必須經過一個冗長而昂貴的申請過程。這個過程可能最終花費每個新產品 100 萬美金。

While some of the biggest manufacturers will be able to shoulder the costs and navigate the regulatory mess, most small e-cigarette companies will be forced out of business. With less competition, e-cigarettes will become more expensive, and many people will go right back to smoking.

盡管一些大制造商能夠承擔這些費用并應對監管亂局,但大部分小型電子香煙企業將被迫退出市場。缺乏競爭,電子香煙會變得更加昂貴,很多消費者又會轉回傳統香煙。

E-cigarette prohibitionists may think they’re using a “better-safe-than-sorry” approach to save consumers from some yet-to-be-discovered danger, but they’re not.
禁電子香煙主義者或許認為他們在用“安全總比后悔好”的方法保護消費者于尚未發現的危險中,其實沒有。

They’re actually endangering millions of smokers who would make the switch if the e-cigarette market were allowed to flourish.
他們實際危害到數百萬吸煙者,如果電子香煙市場能夠繁榮,這些吸煙者就能轉向電子香煙。

As Joe Nocera, a New York Times columnist, wrote:
如紐約時報專欄作家喬·諾切拉寫到:

“Equating smoking cigarettes with inhaling e-cigarettes...is a huge disservice to public health. On the scale of potential harms, e-cigarettes aren’t even in the same ballpark as combustible cigarettes. They have the potential to save millions of lives.”
“平等對待抽煙和吸電子香煙……對公眾健康而言是一種巨大的傷害。就潛在危害程度,電子香煙根本無法和可燃的香煙相提并論。它們可能拯救百萬人的生命?!?/p>

The government needs to develop a new paradigm for dealing with e-cigarettes - one that ensures basic standards but recognizes their relative safety and immense benefit to public health.
政府需要設立一個新的范例來對待電子香煙,這個范例要確定電子香煙的基本標準,但也要承認它相對的安全性和對公眾健康的巨大好處。

If they don’t, more people will die.
如果政府不這樣做,將會有更多人死去。

Imagine that.
難以想象。

I’m Caroline Kitchens of the R Street Institute for Prager University.
我是 R 街研究所的卡羅琳·基欽斯,為 PragerU 制作。

weinxin
博主微信:relx0833
  • 本文由 發表于 2020年8月30日
  • 轉載請注明:http://www.rz-pet.com/9521.html
匿名

發表評論

匿名網友 填寫信息

:?: :razz: :sad: :evil: :!: :smile: :oops: :grin: :eek: :shock: :???: :cool: :lol: :mad: :twisted: :roll: :wink: :idea: :arrow: :neutral: :cry: :mrgreen: